The following is a collection of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for many of the routine tasks in schistosomiasis research laboratories. The SOPs are listed in no particular order, but for convenience  are divided into four categories.

1. Those procedures that are common to the maintenance of Schistosoma mansoniS. haematobium, and S. japonicum.

2. Those procedures that  are most common with the maintenance of S. mansoni and S. haematobium, and their intermediate snail hosts.

3. Those procedures that are relatively specific for the maintenance of S.japonicum in their Oncomelania hupensis ssp. snail hosts.

4. Molecular biology and cell culture procedures

We realize these SOPs are not all-inclusive, and we hope others will contribute to the list over time. Each laboratory tends to develop their own techniques, many of which may be improvements on these listed. We hope these SOPs can be useful, especially to those new to the field, as efficient starting places to help them avoid some of the more common errors in working with these life cycles.

Maintenance of S. japonicum in the Oncomelania hupensis ssp. snail host

Preparation of water to house Oncomelania hupensis
Care of breeding pairs of Oncomelania hupensis
Changing/cleaning the snail pan
Gel snail food preparation
Exposure of Oncomelania hupensis to miracidia
Preparation of mud base medium for growth of Nostoc (cyanobacteria)
Preparation of soluble egg antigen (SEA) S.japonicum eggs
S.japonicum cercariae collection from Oncomelania hupensis and exposure of mice
Isolation of S.japonicum eggs from mouse liver and intestines for hatching and miracidia collection

Protocols common to the maintenance of S. mansoni and S. haematobium, and the host snail

Preparation of water to house snails
Egg clutch collection
Growth of immature Biomphalaria glabrata
Growth conditions until patency
Microscopic evaluation of sporocyst development in live Biomphalaria glabrata
Fixing Biomphalaria glabrata snails for dissection
Shedding cercariae from patent snails
Behavior of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae
Microscopic quantification of cercariae
Preparation of in vitro schistosomules
Culturing schistosomula
A histochemical method for identifying sex of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae (under construction)
Collection of lung Schistosoma mansoni schistosomules
Perfusion of adult worms from infected mice
Control of rotifers and other commensals living in snail aquaria
Tail exposure method for Schistosoma mansoni cercarial exposure
Percutaneous exposure (via the tail) of mice with Schistosoma cercariae
Collection of parasite eggs from tissues
Maintenance of Bulinus truncatus truncatus snails
Exposure of hamsters to Schistosoma haematobium cercariae
Perfusion of S. haematobium from hamsters
Collection of S. haematobium eggs from hamsters

Procedures common to the maintenance of Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium, and S. japonicum

Collecting, Isolating, and Hatching Oncomelania hupensis ssp. eggs
Exposing Oncomelania snails to Schistosoma japonicum miracidia
Schistosoma japonicum cercarial collection and exposure of mice
Collecting Schistosoma japonicum eggs from mouse tissues

Molecular biology and cell culture protocols

Molecular technique for sexing cercariae
Genomic DNA extraction from schistosome intermediate hosts and parasite stages
RNA extraction from schistosome intermediate hosts and parasite stages using RNAzol®
Biomphalaria glabrata embryonic cell (Bge) cell culture
Non-invasive DNA transfection to B. glabrata using polyethylenimine (PEI)