The following is a collection of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for many of the routine tasks in schistosomiasis research laboratories. The SOPs are listed in no particular order, but for convenience  are divided into four categories.

1. Those procedures that are common to the maintenance of Schistosoma mansoniS. haematobium, and S. japonicum.

2. Those procedures that  are most common with the maintenance of S. mansoni and S. haematobium, and their intermediate snail hosts.

3. Those procedures that are relatively specific for the maintenance of S.japonicum in their Oncomelania hupensis ssp. snail hosts.

4. Molecular biology and cell culture procedures

We realize these SOPs are not all-inclusive, and we hope others will contribute to the list over time. Each laboratory tends to develop their own techniques, many of which may be improvements on these listed. We hope these SOPs can be useful, especially to those new to the field, as efficient starting places to help them avoid some of the more common errors in working with these life cycles.

Procedures specific for the maintenance of S. japonicum in their Oncomelania hupensis ssp. snail hosts

Preparation of suitable water for snails
Changing containers of snails
Gel snail food preparation
Exposure of snails to miracidia
Preparation of mud base medium for growth of Nostoc
Preparation of soluble egg antigen (SEA)

Procedures common to the maintenance of S. mansoni and S. haematobium, and their intermediate hosts
Egg clutch collection
Growth of immature Biomphalaria glabrata
Growth conditions until patency
Microscopic evaluation of sporocyst development in live Biomphalaria glabrata
Fixing Biomphalaria glabrata snails for dissection
Shedding snails
Behavior of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae
Counting cercariae
Preparation of in vitro schistosomules
Culturing schistosomula
A histochemical method for identifying sex of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae
Collection of lung Schistosoma mansoni schistosomules
Perfusion of adult worms from mice
Control of rotifers and other commensals on/within Biomphalaria glabrata snails
Tail exposure method for Schistosoma mansoni cercarial exposure
Anesthesia techniques for mice (for abdominal cercarial exposure)
Collection of eggs from tissues
Maintenance of Bulinus truncatus truncatus snails
Exposure of hamsters to Schistosoma haematobium cercariae
Perfusion of Schistosoma haematobium from hamsters
Collection of Schistosoma haematobium eggs from hamsters

Procedures common to the maintenance of Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium, and S. japonicum
Care of breeding pairs of Oncomelania hupensis ssp. snails
Collecting, Isolating, and Hatching Oncomelania hupensis ssp. eggs
Exposing Oncomelania snails to Schistosoma japonicum miracidia
Schistosoma japonicum cercarial collection and exposure of mice
Collecting Schistosoma japonicum eggs from mouse tissues

Molecular biology and cell culture procedures

Molecular technique for sexing cercariae

Genomic DNA extraction from schistosome intermediate hosts and parasite stages

RNA extraction from schistosome intermediate hosts and parasite stages using RNAzol®

Bge cell culture 

Non-invasive DNA transfection to B. glabrata using polyethylenimine (PEI)